lunes, 27 de julio de 2009

Child Rights -

Derechos Humanos
De las Naciones Unidas ACNUDH Derechos Humanos

Convention on the Rights of the Child Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño

Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by Aprobó y abrió a la firma, ratificación y adhesión por
General Assembly resolution 44/25 Resolución 44/25 de la Asamblea General
of 20 November 1989 20 de noviembre de 1989

entry into force 2 September 1990, in accordance with article 49 entrada en vigor el 2 de septiembre de 1990, de conformidad con el artículo 49

Status of ratifications Estado de las ratificaciones
Declarations and reservations Declaraciones y reservas
Committee on the Rights of the Child Comité de los Derechos del Niño

F l S l A l C l R F l S l A l C l R

Preamble Preámbulo

    The States Parties to the present Convention, Los Estados Partes en la presente Convención,

    Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, Considerando que, de conformidad con los principios proclamados en la Carta de las Naciones Unidas, el reconocimiento de la dignidad intrínseca y de los derechos iguales e inalienables de todos los miembros de la familia humana es el fundamento de la libertad, la justicia y la paz en el mundo,

    Bearing in mind that the peoples of the United Nations have, in the Charter, reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights and in the dignity and worth of the human person, and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, Teniendo en cuenta que los pueblos de las Naciones Unidas han reafirmado en la Carta su fe en los derechos humanos fundamentales y en la dignidad y el valor de la persona humana, y se han declarado resueltos a promover el progreso social y mejores niveles de vida en el más amplio de la libertad,

    Recognizing that the United Nations has, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the International Covenants on Human Rights, proclaimed and agreed that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth therein, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status, Reconociendo que las Naciones Unidas, en la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos y en los Pactos Internacionales de Derechos Humanos, reconocido y proclamado que toda persona tiene derecho a todos los derechos y libertades enunciados en ella, sin distinción de ningún tipo, tales como la raza, color, sexo, idioma, religión, opiniones políticas u otras, origen nacional o social, posición económica, nacimiento o cualquier otra condición,

    Recalling that, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations has proclaimed that childhood is entitled to special care and assistance, Recordando que, en la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos, las Naciones Unidas proclamaron que la infancia tiene derecho a cuidados y asistencia especiales,

    Convinced that the family, as the fundamental group of society and the natural environment for the growth and well-being of all its members and particularly children, should be afforded the necessary protection and assistance so that it can fully assume its responsibilities within the community, Convencida de que la familia, como grupo fundamental de la sociedad y medio natural para el crecimiento y el bienestar de todos sus miembros y en particular los niños, deben gozar de la protección y asistencia necesarias para que pueda asumir plenamente sus responsabilidades dentro de la comunidad,

    Recognizing that the child, for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding, Reconociendo que el niño, para el pleno y armonioso desarrollo de su personalidad, debe crecer en un entorno familiar, en un ambiente de felicidad, amor y comprensión,

    Considering that the child should be fully prepared to live an individual life in society, and brought up in the spirit of the ideals proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, and in particular in the spirit of peace, dignity, tolerance, freedom, equality and solidarity, Teniendo en cuenta que el niño debe estar plenamente preparado para una vida independiente en sociedad y ser educado en el espíritu de los ideales proclamados en la Carta de las Naciones Unidas y, en particular, en el espíritu de paz, dignidad, tolerancia, libertad, igualdad y la solidaridad,

    Bearing in mind that the need to extend particular care to the child has been stated in the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924 and in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted by the General Assembly on 20 November 1959 and recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (in particular in articles 23 and 24), in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (in particular in article 10) and in the statutes and relevant instruments of specialized agencies and international organizations concerned with the welfare of children, ' Teniendo en cuenta que la necesidad de ampliar la atención especial a los niños se ha señalado en la Declaración de Ginebra de los Derechos del Niño de 1924 y en la Declaración de los Derechos del Niño aprobada por la Asamblea General el 20 de noviembre de 1959 y reconocido en la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos, en el Pacto Internacional de Derechos Civiles y Políticos (en particular en los artículos 23 y 24), en el Pacto Internacional de Derechos Económicos, Sociales y Culturales (en particular en el artículo 10) y en los estatutos y las instrumentos de los organismos especializados y las organizaciones internacionales interesadas en el bienestar de los niños, "

    Bearing in mind that, as indicated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, "the child, by reason of his physical and mental immaturity, needs special safeguards and care, including appropriate legal protection, before as well as after birth", Teniendo en cuenta que, como se indica en la Declaración de los Derechos del Niño, "el niño, por razón de su inmadurez física y mental, necesita protección y cuidado especiales, incluso la debida protección legal, tanto antes como después del nacimiento",

    Recalling the provisions of the Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children, with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption Nationally and Internationally; the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules) ; and the Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict, Recordando las disposiciones de la Declaración sobre los principios sociales y jurídicos relativos a la protección y el bienestar de los niños, con especial referencia para el Fomento de la colocación y la adopción nacional e internacional, las Naciones Unidas, Reglas Mínimas para la administración de la justicia de menores (Reglas de Beijing); y la Declaración sobre la protección de mujeres y niños en situaciones de emergencia y los conflictos armados,

    Recognizing that, in all countries in the world, there are children living in exceptionally difficult conditions, and that such children need special consideration, Reconociendo que, en todos los países del mundo hay niños que viven en condiciones excepcionalmente difíciles, y que esos niños necesitan especial consideración,

    Taking due account of the importance of the traditions and cultural values of each people for the protection and harmonious development of the child, Teniendo debidamente en cuenta la importancia de las tradiciones y los valores culturales de cada pueblo para la protección y el desarrollo armonioso del niño,

    Recognizing the importance of international co-operation for improving the living conditions of children in every country, in particular in the developing countries, Reconociendo la importancia de la cooperación internacional para mejorar las condiciones de vida de los niños en todos los países, en particular en los países en desarrollo,

    Have agreed as follows: Han convenido en lo siguiente:

PART I PARTE I

Article 1 Artículo 1

    For the purposes of the present Convention, a child means every human being below the age of eighteen years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier. A los efectos de la presente Convención, se entiende por niño todo ser humano menor de dieciocho años, salvo en virtud de la ley aplicable al niño, la mayoría se alcance antes.

Article 2 Artículo 2

    1. 1. States Parties shall respect and ensure the rights set forth in the present Convention to each child within their jurisdiction without discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child's or his or her parent's or legal guardian's race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status. Los Estados Partes respetarán y garantizarán los derechos enunciados en la presente Convención a cada niño sujeto a su jurisdicción, sin discriminación de ningún tipo, independientemente de que el niño o sus padres o tutor legal de la raza, color, sexo, idioma, religión, opinión política o de otra índole, origen nacional, origen étnico o social, propiedad, discapacidad, nacimiento u otra condición.

    2. 2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that the child is protected against all forms of discrimination or punishment on the basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of the child's parents, legal guardians, or family members. Los Estados Partes adoptarán todas las medidas apropiadas para garantizar que el niño se vea protegido contra toda forma de discriminación o castigo sobre la base de la situación, las actividades, las opiniones expresadas o las creencias de sus padres, tutores o familiares.

Article 3 Artículo 3

    1. 1. In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration. En todas las medidas concernientes a los niños, públicas o privadas de bienestar social, los tribunales de justicia, las autoridades administrativas o los órganos legislativos, el interés superior del niño sea la consideración primordial.

    2. 2. States Parties undertake to ensure the child such protection and care as is necessary for his or her well-being, taking into account the rights and duties of his or her parents, legal guardians, or other individuals legally responsible for him or her, and, to this end, shall take all appropriate legislative and administrative measures. Los Estados Partes se comprometen a asegurar al niño la protección y los cuidados necesarios para su bienestar, teniendo en cuenta los derechos y deberes de sus padres, tutores u otras personas responsables de él o ella, y, a tal fin, tomarán todas las medidas legislativas y administrativas.

    3. 3. States Parties shall ensure that the institutions, services and facilities responsible for the care or protection of children shall conform with the standards established by competent authorities, particularly in the areas of safety, health, in the number and suitability of their staff, as well as competent supervision. Los Estados Partes velarán por que las instituciones, servicios y establecimientos encargados del cuidado o la protección de los niños cumplan las normas establecidas por las autoridades competentes, en particular en materia de seguridad, sanidad, número e idoneidad de su personal, así como supervisión competente.

Article 4 Artículo 4

    States Parties shall undertake all appropriate legislative, administrative, and other measures for the implementation of the rights recognized in the present Convention. Los Estados Partes adoptarán todas las medidas legislativas, administrativas, y otras medidas para la aplicación de los derechos reconocidos en la presente Convención. With regard to economic, social and cultural rights, States Parties shall undertake such measures to the maximum extent of their available resources and, where needed, within the framework of international co-operation. Con respecto a los derechos económicos, sociales y culturales, los Estados Partes adoptarán esas medidas hasta el máximo de sus recursos disponibles y, cuando sea necesario, en el marco de la cooperación internacional.

Article 5 Artículo 5

    States Parties shall respect the responsibilities, rights and duties of parents or, where applicable, the members of the extended family or community as provided for by local custom, legal guardians or other persons legally responsible for the child, to provide, in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child, appropriate direction and guidance in the exercise by the child of the rights recognized in the present Convention. Los Estados Partes respetarán las responsabilidades, los derechos y deberes de los padres o, en su caso, los miembros de la familia ampliada o la comunidad, según establezca la costumbre local, de los tutores u otras personas encargadas legalmente del niño de impartirle, en forma compatible con la capacidad evolutiva del niño, dirección y orientación apropiadas para el ejercicio por el niño de los derechos reconocidos en la presente Convención.

Article 6 Artículo 6

    1. 1. States Parties recognize that every child has the inherent right to life. Los Estados Partes reconocen que todo niño tiene el derecho intrínseco a la vida.

    2. 2. States Parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child. Los Estados Partes garantizarán en la máxima medida posible la supervivencia y el desarrollo del niño.

Article 7 Artículo 7

    1. 1. The child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality and. El niño será inscrito inmediatamente después de su nacimiento y tendrá derecho desde que nace a un nombre, el derecho a adquirir una nacionalidad y. as far as possible, the right to know and be cared for by his or her parents. la medida de lo posible, el derecho a conocer ya ser cuidado por sus padres.

    2. 2. States Parties shall ensure the implementation of these rights in accordance with their national law and their obligations under the relevant international instruments in this field, in particular where the child would otherwise be stateless. Los Estados Partes velarán por la aplicación de estos derechos de conformidad con su legislación nacional y sus obligaciones en virtud de los instrumentos internacionales pertinentes en esta esfera, en particular cuando el niño resultara de otro modo apátrida.

Article 8 Artículo 8

    1. 1. States Parties undertake to respect the right of the child to preserve his or her identity, including nationality, name and family relations as recognized by law without unlawful interference. Los Estados Partes se comprometen a respetar el derecho del niño a preservar su identidad, incluidos la nacionalidad, el nombre y las relaciones familiares reconocidas por la ley sin injerencias ilícitas.

    2. 2. Where a child is illegally deprived of some or all of the elements of his or her identity, States Parties shall provide appropriate assistance and protection, with a view to re-establishing speedily his or her identity. Cuando un niño sea privado ilegalmente de todos o algunos de los elementos de su identidad, los Estados Partes prestarán la asistencia y protección apropiadas con miras a restablecer rápidamente su identidad.

Article 9 Artículo 9

    1. 1. States Parties shall ensure that a child shall not be separated from his or her parents against their will, except when competent authorities subject to judicial review determine, in accordance with applicable law and procedures, that such separation is necessary for the best interests of the child. Los Estados Partes velarán por que el niño no sea separado de sus padres contra su voluntad, excepto cuando las autoridades competentes, con sujeción a un examen judicial, de conformidad con las leyes y procedimientos aplicables, que tal separación es necesaria en el interés superior del niño . Such determination may be necessary in a particular case such as one involving abuse or neglect of the child by the parents, or one where the parents are living separately and a decision must be made as to the child's place of residence. Tal determinación puede ser necesaria en casos particulares, tales como la participación de un abuso o abandono del niño por los padres, o uno en que los padres viven separados y debe adoptarse una decisión en cuanto a los niños del lugar de residencia.

    2. 2. In any proceedings pursuant to paragraph 1 of the present article, all interested parties shall be given an opportunity to participate in the proceedings and make their views known. En cualquier procedimiento entablado de conformidad con el párrafo 1 del presente artículo, todas las partes interesadas tendrán la oportunidad de participar en las deliberaciones y dar a conocer sus opiniones.

    3. 3. States Parties shall respect the right of the child who is separated from one or both parents to maintain personal relations and direct contact with both parents on a regular basis, except if it is contrary to the child's best interests. Los Estados Partes respetarán el derecho del niño que esté separado de uno o ambos padres a mantener relaciones personales y contacto directo con ambos padres de modo regular, salvo si ello es contrario al interés superior del niño. 4. 4. Where such separation results from any action initiated by a State Party, such as the detention, imprisonment, exile, deportation or death (including death arising from any cause while the person is in the custody of the State) of one or both parents or of the child, that State Party shall, upon request, provide the parents, the child or, if appropriate, another member of the family with the essential information concerning the whereabouts of the absent member(s) of the family unless the provision of the information would be detrimental to the well-being of the child. Cuando esa separación sea resultado de una medida adoptada por un Estado Parte, como la detención, el encarcelamiento, el exilio, la deportación o la muerte (incluido el fallecimiento debido a cualquier causa mientras la persona esté bajo la custodia del Estado) de uno o ambos padres o de el niño, ese Estado Parte, previa solicitud, facilitar a los padres, el niño o, en su caso, otro miembro de la familia con la información esencial sobre el paradero de los ausentes miembro (s) de la familia a menos que el suministro de la información sería perjudicial para el bienestar del niño. States Parties shall further ensure that the submission of such a request shall of itself entail no adverse consequences for the person(s) concerned. Los Estados Partes garantizarán, además, que la presentación de la solicitud de no entrañe por sí misma consecuencias desfavorables para la persona (s) en cuestión.

Article 10 Artículo 10

    1. 1. In accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article 9, paragraph 1, applications by a child or his or her parents to enter or leave a State Party for the purpose of family reunification shall be dealt with by States Parties in a positive, humane and expeditious manner. De conformidad con la obligación de los Estados Partes en virtud del artículo 9, apartado 1, las solicitudes por un niño o de sus padres a entrar o salir de un Estado Parte con el propósito de la reunificación de la familia serán tratados por los Estados Partes de manera positiva, humana y de manera rápida. States Parties shall further ensure that the submission of such a request shall entail no adverse consequences for the applicants and for the members of their family. Los Estados Partes garantizarán, además, que la presentación de tal petición no traerá consecuencias desfavorables para los solicitantes y para los miembros de su familia.

    2. 2. A child whose parents reside in different States shall have the right to maintain on a regular basis, save in exceptional circumstances personal relations and direct contacts with both parents. Un niño cuyos padres residan en Estados diferentes tendrá derecho a mantener periódicamente, salvo en circunstancias excepcionales, relaciones personales y contactos directos con ambos padres. Towards that end and in accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article 9, paragraph 1, States Parties shall respect the right of the child and his or her parents to leave any country, including their own, and to enter their own country. Con tal fin, y de conformidad con la obligación de los Estados Partes en virtud del artículo 9, apartado 1, los Estados Partes respetarán el derecho del niño y sus padres a salir de cualquier país, incluso del propio, ya entrar en su propio país. The right to leave any country shall be subject only to such restrictions as are prescribed by law and which are necessary to protect the national security, public order (ordre public), public health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others and are consistent with the other rights recognized in the present Convention. El derecho a salir de cualquier país estará sujeto solamente a las restricciones que se establezcan por ley y que sean necesarias para proteger la seguridad nacional, el orden público (orden público), la salud o la moral públicas o los derechos y libertades de los demás y son coherentes con los demás derechos reconocidos en la presente Convención.

Article 11 Artículo 11

    1. 1. States Parties shall take measures to combat the illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad. Los Estados Partes adoptarán medidas para luchar contra la transferencia ilícita y la no devolución de los niños en el extranjero.

    2. 2. To this end, States Parties shall promote the conclusion of bilateral or multilateral agreements or accession to existing agreements. Con este fin, los Estados Partes promoverán la concertación de acuerdos bilaterales o multilaterales o la adhesión a acuerdos existentes.

Article 12 Artículo 12

    1. 1. States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child. Los Estados Partes garantizarán al niño que esté en condiciones de formarse un juicio propio el derecho a expresar sus opiniones libremente en todos los asuntos que afectan al niño, las opiniones de los niños se tengan debidamente en cuenta el peso de acuerdo con la edad y madurez del niño .

    2. 2. For this purpose, the child shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the child, either directly, or through a representative or an appropriate body, in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of national law. Con este fin, el niño, en particular, se brindó la oportunidad de ser escuchado en todo procedimiento judicial o administrativo que afecte al niño, ya sea directamente, oa través de un representante o de un órgano apropiado, en forma compatible con las normas de procedimiento de la legislación nacional.

Article 13 Artículo 13

    1. 1. The child shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of the child's choice. El niño tendrá derecho a la libertad de expresión, este derecho comprende la libertad de buscar, recibir y difundir informaciones e ideas de toda índole, sin consideración de fronteras, ya sea oralmente, por escrito o impresas, en forma artística o por cualquier otro medio elegido por el niño.

    2. 2. The exercise of this right may be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary: El ejercicio de este derecho podrá estar sujeto a ciertas restricciones, que serán únicamente las que están previstas por la ley y ser necesarias para:

      (a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others; or (a) Para el respeto de los derechos o la reputación de los demás, o

      (b) For the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or morals. (b) Para la protección de la seguridad nacional o del orden público (ordre public), o de la salud pública o la moral.

Article 14 Artículo 14

1. 1. States Parties shall respect the right of the child to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. Los Estados Partes respetarán el derecho del niño a la libertad de pensamiento, de conciencia y de religión.

2. 2. States Parties shall respect the rights and duties of the parents and, when applicable, legal guardians, to provide direction to the child in the exercise of his or her right in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child. Los Estados Partes respetarán los derechos y deberes de los padres y, en su caso, tutores legales, de guiar al niño en el ejercicio de su derecho de manera compatible con la evolución de las capacidades del niño.

3. 3. Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health or morals, or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others. La libertad de manifestar la religión o las propias creencias estará sujeta únicamente a las limitaciones prescritas por la ley y que sean necesarias para proteger la seguridad, el orden, la salud o la moral públicas o los derechos y libertades fundamentales de los demás.

Article 15 Artículo 15

1. 1. States Parties recognize the rights of the child to freedom of association and to freedom of peaceful assembly. Los Estados Partes reconocen los derechos del niño a la libertad de asociación ya la libertad de reunión pacífica.

2. 2. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of these rights other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others. Restricciones no podrán comercializarse en el ejercicio de estos derechos distintas de las impuestas de conformidad con la ley y que sean necesarias en una sociedad democrática en interés de la seguridad nacional o la seguridad pública, orden público (orden público), la protección de la salud pública o la moral o la protección de los derechos y libertades de los demás.

Article 16 Artículo 16

1. 1. No child shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his or her honour and reputation. Ningún niño será objeto de injerencias arbitrarias o ilegales en su vida privada, su familia, su domicilio o su correspondencia, ni de ataques ilegales a su honra y reputación.

2. 2. The child has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks. El niño tiene el derecho a la protección de la ley contra tales injerencias o ataques.

Article 17 Artículo 17

States Parties recognize the important function performed by the mass media and shall ensure that the child has access to information and material from a diversity of national and international sources, especially those aimed at the promotion of his or her social, spiritual and moral well-being and physical and mental health. Los Estados Partes reconocen la importante función que desempeñan los medios de comunicación y velarán por que el niño tenga acceso a información y material procedentes de diversas fuentes nacionales e internacionales, especialmente las destinadas a la promoción de su bienestar social, espiritual y moral y el bienestar y salud física y mental. To this end, States Parties shall: Con este fin, los Estados Partes:

(a) Encourage the mass media to disseminate information and material of social and cultural benefit to the child and in accordance with the spirit of article 29; (a) Alentar a los medios de comunicación a difundir información y materiales de interés social y cultural para el niño, de conformidad con el espíritu del artículo 29;

(b) Encourage international co-operation in the production, exchange and dissemination of such information and material from a diversity of cultural, national and international sources; (b) Fomentar la cooperación internacional en la producción, el intercambio y la difusión de dicha información y material procedentes de diversas culturales, nacionales e internacionales;

(c) Encourage the production and dissemination of children's books; (c) Alentarán la producción y difusión de libros para niños;

(d) Encourage the mass media to have particular regard to the linguistic needs of the child who belongs to a minority group or who is indigenous; (d) Alentar a los medios de comunicación a que tengan particularmente en cuenta las necesidades lingüísticas del niño perteneciente a un grupo minoritario o que sea indígena;

(e) Encourage the development of appropriate guidelines for the protection of the child from information and material injurious to his or her well-being, bearing in mind the provisions of articles 13 and 18. (e) Promover la elaboración de directrices apropiadas para proteger al niño contra toda información y material perjudicial para su bienestar, teniendo en cuenta las disposiciones de los artículos 13 y 18.

Article 18 Artículo 18

1. 1. States Parties shall use their best efforts to ensure recognition of the principle that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing and development of the child. Los Estados Partes pondrán el máximo empeño en garantizar el reconocimiento del principio de que ambos padres comparten la responsabilidad de la crianza y el desarrollo del niño. Parents or, as the case may be, legal guardians, have the primary responsibility for the upbringing and development of the child. Los padres o, en su caso, tutores legales, tienen la responsabilidad primordial de la crianza y el desarrollo del niño. The best interests of the child will be their basic concern. El interés superior del niño como su preocupación fundamental.

2. 2. For the purpose of guaranteeing and promoting the rights set forth in the present Convention, States Parties shall render appropriate assistance to parents and legal guardians in the performance of their child-rearing responsibilities and shall ensure the development of institutions, facilities and services for the care of children. A los efectos de garantizar y promover los derechos enunciados en la presente Convención, los Estados Partes prestarán la asistencia apropiada a los padres y tutores en el desempeño de sus responsabilidades en la crianza de los niños y garantizar el desarrollo de instituciones, instalaciones y servicios para el cuidado de los niños.

3. 3. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that children of working parents have the right to benefit from child-care services and facilities for which they are eligible. Los Estados Partes adoptarán todas las medidas apropiadas para garantizar que los niños cuyos padres trabajan tengan derecho a beneficiarse de servicios de guardería y las instalaciones de las que son elegibles.

Article 19 Artículo 19

1. 1. States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child. Los Estados Partes adoptarán todas las medidas legislativas, administrativas, sociales y educativas apropiadas para proteger al niño contra todas las formas de violencia física o mental, lesiones o abusos, descuido o trato negligente, malos tratos o explotación, incluido el abuso sexual, mientras que en el cuidado de los padres (s), tutor legal (s) o cualquier otra persona que tiene el cuidado del niño.

2. 2. Such protective measures should, as appropriate, include effective procedures for the establishment of social programmes to provide necessary support for the child and for those who have the care of the child, as well as for other forms of prevention and for identification, reporting, referral, investigation, treatment and follow-up of instances of child maltreatment described heretofore, and, as appropriate, for judicial involvement. Esas medidas de protección deberían comprender, según corresponda, procedimientos eficaces para el establecimiento de programas sociales con objeto de proporcionar la asistencia necesaria para el niño y para quienes cuidan del niño, así como para otras formas de prevención y para la identificación, notificación, remisión , investigación, tratamiento y seguimiento de casos de maltrato infantil antes descritos, y, en su caso, la intervención judicial.

Article 20 Artículo 20

1. 1. A child temporarily or permanently deprived of his or her family environment, or in whose own best interests cannot be allowed to remain in that environment, shall be entitled to special protection and assistance provided by the State. Los niños temporal o permanentemente privados de su medio familiar, o cuyo superior interés exija que no permanezcan en ese medio, tendrán derecho a la protección y asistencia especiales del Estado.

2. 2. States Parties shall in accordance with their national laws ensure alternative care for such a child. Los Estados Partes, de conformidad con sus leyes nacionales garantizar cuidados alternativos para esos niños.

3. 3. Such care could include, inter alia, foster placement, kafalah of Islamic law, adoption or if necessary placement in suitable institutions for the care of children. Entre esos cuidados figurarán, entre otras cosas, promover la colocación, la kafala del derecho islámico, la adopción o de ser necesario la colocación en instituciones adecuadas para el cuidado de los niños. When considering solutions, due regard shall be paid to the desirability of continuity in a child's upbringing and to the child's ethnic, religious, cultural and linguistic background. Al considerar las soluciones, se prestará la debida atención a la conveniencia de que haya continuidad en la crianza del menor y al niño ya su origen étnico, religioso, cultural y lingüístico.

Article 21 Artículo 21

States Parties that recognize and/or permit the system of adoption shall ensure that the best interests of the child shall be the paramount consideration and they shall: Los Estados Partes que reconocen o permiten el sistema de adopción cuidarán de que el interés superior del niño sea la consideración primordial y:

(a) Ensure that the adoption of a child is authorized only by competent authorities who determine, in accordance with applicable law and procedures and on the basis of all pertinent and reliable information, that the adoption is permissible in view of the child's status concerning parents, relatives and legal guardians and that, if required, the persons concerned have given their informed consent to the adoption on the basis of such counselling as may be necessary; (a) Velar por que la adopción de un niño sólo es autorizada por las autoridades competentes que determinarán, de conformidad con las leyes y procedimientos aplicables y sobre la base de toda información pertinente y fidedigna, que la adopción es admisible en vista de la situación jurídica del niño en relación con sus padres , parientes y representantes legales y que, en caso necesario, las personas interesadas hayan dado su consentimiento a la adopción sobre la base del asesoramiento que pueda ser necesario;

(b) Recognize that inter-country adoption may be considered as an alternative means of child's care, if the child cannot be placed in a foster or an adoptive family or cannot in any suitable manner be cared for in the child's country of origin; (c) Ensure that the child concerned by inter-country adoption enjoys safeguards and standards equivalent to those existing in the case of national adoption; (b) Reconocerán que la adopción en otro país puede ser considerada como otro medio de cuidar del niño, si el niño no puede ser colocado en un hogar de guarda o una familia adoptiva o no pueda, en cualquier ser atendido de manera adecuada en el país de origen; ( c) Velar por que los niños afectados por la adopción en otro país goce de salvaguardias y normas equivalentes a las existentes en el caso de la adopción nacional;

(d) Take all appropriate measures to ensure that, in inter-country adoption, the placement does not result in improper financial gain for those involved in it; (d) Adoptar todas las medidas apropiadas para garantizar que, en la adopción internacional, la colocación no dé lugar a beneficios financieros indebidos para quienes participan en ella;

(e) Promote, where appropriate, the objectives of the present article by concluding bilateral or multilateral arrangements or agreements, and endeavour, within this framework, to ensure that the placement of the child in another country is carried out by competent authorities or organs. (e) Promover, en su caso, los objetivos del presente artículo mediante la concertación de acuerdos bilaterales o multilaterales o de acuerdos, y se esforzarán, dentro de este marco, para garantizar que la colocación del niño en otro país se lleva a cabo por las autoridades u órganos competentes.

Article 22 Artículo 22

1. 1. States Parties shall take appropriate measures to ensure that a child who is seeking refugee status or who is considered a refugee in accordance with applicable international or domestic law and procedures shall, whether unaccompanied or accompanied by his or her parents or by any other person, receive appropriate protection and humanitarian assistance in the enjoyment of applicable rights set forth in the present Convention and in other international human rights or humanitarian instruments to which the said States are Parties. Los Estados Partes adoptarán las medidas apropiadas para garantizar que un niño que trate de obtener el estatuto de refugiado o que sea considerado refugiado de conformidad con la ley internacional o nacional y procedimientos, acompañado o no acompañado por sus padres o por cualquier otra persona, recibir adecuada protección y asistencia humanitaria en el disfrute de los derechos enunciados en la presente Convención y en otros instrumentos internacionales de derechos humanos o al derecho humanitario en que dichos Estados sean Partes.

2. 2. For this purpose, States Parties shall provide, as they consider appropriate, co-operation in any efforts by the United Nations and other competent intergovernmental organizations or non-governmental organizations co-operating with the United Nations to protect and assist such a child and to trace the parents or other members of the family of any refugee child in order to obtain information necessary for reunification with his or her family. Con este fin, los Estados Partes, en la forma que considere apropiado, la cooperación en los esfuerzos de las Naciones Unidas y otras organizaciones intergubernamentales u organizaciones no gubernamentales que cooperan con las Naciones Unidas para proteger y ayudar a esos niños y localizar a los padres oa otros miembros de la familia de todo niño refugiado, a fin de obtener la información necesaria para que se reúna con su familia. In cases where no parents or other members of the family can be found, the child shall be accorded the same protection as any other child permanently or temporarily deprived of his or her family environment for any reason , as set forth in the present Convention. En los casos en que no los padres u otros miembros de la familia se puede encontrar, se concederá al niño la misma protección que a cualquier otro niño privado permanente o temporalmente de su medio familiar, por cualquier motivo, como se establece en la presente Convención.

Article 23 Artículo 23

1. 1. States Parties recognize that a mentally or physically disabled child should enjoy a full and decent life, in conditions which ensure dignity, promote self-reliance and facilitate the child's active participation in the community. Los Estados Partes reconocen que una discapacidad física o mental niño debe gozar de una vida plena y decente en condiciones que aseguren la dignidad, fomenten su autosuficiencia y facilitar la participación activa del niño en la comunidad.

2. 2. States Parties recognize the right of the disabled child to special care and shall encourage and ensure the extension, subject to available resources, to the eligible child and those responsible for his or her care, of assistance for which application is made and which is appropriate to the child's condition and to the circumstances of the parents or others caring for the child. Los Estados Partes reconocen el derecho del niño impedido a recibir cuidados especiales y alentarán y asegurarán, con sujeción a los recursos disponibles, a los niños elegibles y los responsables de su cuidado, de asistencia para la aplicación que se hace y que es apropiado para la condición del niño y las circunstancias de los padres o personas que cuidan del niño. 3. 3. Recognizing the special needs of a disabled child, assistance extended in accordance with paragraph 2 of the present article shall be provided free of charge, whenever possible, taking into account the financial resources of the parents or others caring for the child, and shall be designed to ensure that the disabled child has effective access to and receives education, training, health care services, rehabilitation services, preparation for employment and recreation opportunities in a manner conducive to the child's achieving the fullest possible social integration and individual development, including his or her cultural and spiritual development Reconociendo las necesidades especiales de un niño con discapacidad, asistencia prestada de conformidad con el párrafo 2 del presente artículo se facilitará de forma gratuita, siempre que sea posible, teniendo en cuenta los recursos financieros de los padres o personas que cuidan del niño, y se diseñarán para garantizar que el niño impedido tenga un acceso efectivo a la educación, formación, servicios de atención médica, servicios de rehabilitación, preparación para el empleo y las oportunidades de modo que favorezcan el logro del niño en la mayor medida posible la integración social y el desarrollo individual, incluido su desarrollo cultural y espiritual

4. 4. States Parties shall promote, in the spirit of international cooperation, the exchange of appropriate information in the field of preventive health care and of medical, psychological and functional treatment of disabled children, including dissemination of and access to information concerning methods of rehabilitation, education and vocational services, with the aim of enabling States Parties to improve their capabilities and skills and to widen their experience in these areas. Los Estados Partes promoverán, en el espíritu de la cooperación internacional, el intercambio de información adecuada en el ámbito de la atención sanitaria preventiva y de asistencia médica, psicológica y funcional de tratamiento de los niños impedidos, incluida la difusión y el acceso a la información sobre los métodos de rehabilitación, la educación y la servicios profesionales, con el objetivo de que los Estados Partes a mejorar su capacidad y conocimientos y ampliar su experiencia en estas áreas. In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing countries. A este respecto, se tendrán especialmente en cuenta las necesidades de los países en desarrollo.

Article 24 Artículo 24

1. 1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and to facilities for the treatment of illness and rehabilitation of health. Los Estados Partes reconocen el derecho del niño al disfrute del más alto nivel posible de salud ya servicios para el tratamiento de las enfermedades y la rehabilitación de la salud. States Parties shall strive to ensure that no child is deprived of his or her right of access to such health care services. Los Estados Partes se esforzarán por asegurar que ningún niño sea privado de su derecho de acceso a esos servicios sanitarios.

2. 2. States Parties shall pursue full implementation of this right and, in particular, shall take appropriate measures: Los Estados Partes asegurarán la plena aplicación de este derecho y, en particular, adoptarán las medidas apropiadas para:

(a) To diminish infant and child mortality; (a) Reducir la mortalidad infantil;

(b) To ensure the provision of necessary medical assistance and health care to all children with emphasis on the development of primary health care; (b) Asegurar la prestación de la asistencia médica necesaria y la atención de la salud a todos los niños, haciendo hincapié en el desarrollo de la atención primaria de salud;

(c) To combat disease and malnutrition, including within the framework of primary health care, through, inter alia, the application of readily available technology and through the provision of adequate nutritious foods and clean drinking-water, taking into consideration the dangers and risks of environmental pollution; (c) Combatir las enfermedades y la malnutrición en el marco de la atención primaria de salud, mediante, entre otras cosas, la aplicación de la tecnología disponible y el suministro de alimentos nutritivos adecuados y agua potable salubre, teniendo en cuenta los peligros y riesgos de la contaminación ambiental;

(d) To ensure appropriate pre-natal and post-natal health care for mothers; (d) Para garantizar una adecuada atención prenatal y postnatal a las madres atención de salud;

(e) To ensure that all segments of society, in particular parents and children, are informed, have access to education and are supported in the use of basic knowledge of child health and nutrition, the advantages of breastfeeding, hygiene and environmental sanitation and the prevention of accidents; (e) Asegurar que todos los sectores de la sociedad, en particular los padres y los niños, estén informados, tengan acceso a la educación y se apoyan en el uso de los conocimientos básicos de salud y nutrición infantil, las ventajas de la lactancia materna, la higiene y el saneamiento ambiental y la prevención de accidentes;

(f) To develop preventive health care, guidance for parents and family planning education and services. (f) Desarrollar la atención sanitaria preventiva, la orientación a los padres y la planificación de la familia la educación y los servicios.

3. 3. States Parties shall take all effective and appropriate measures with a view to abolishing traditional practices prejudicial to the health of children. Los Estados Partes adoptarán todas las medidas eficaces y apropiadas posibles para abolir las prácticas tradicionales perjudiciales para la salud de los niños.

4. 4. States Parties undertake to promote and encourage international co-operation with a view to achieving progressively the full realization of the right recognized in the present article. Los Estados Partes se comprometen a promover y alentar la cooperación internacional con miras a lograr progresivamente la plena realización del derecho reconocido en el presente artículo. In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing countries. A este respecto, se tendrán especialmente en cuenta las necesidades de los países en desarrollo.

Article 25 Artículo 25

States Parties recognize the right of a child who has been placed by the competent authorities for the purposes of care, protection or treatment of his or her physical or mental health, to a periodic review of the treatment provided to the child and all other circumstances relevant to his or her placement. Los Estados Partes reconocen el derecho de un niño que ha sido colocado por las autoridades competentes para los fines de atención, protección o tratamiento de su salud física o mental a un examen periódico del tratamiento a los niños y todas las demás circunstancias propias de su internación.

Article 26 Artículo 26

1. 1. States Parties shall recognize for every child the right to benefit from social security, including social insurance, and shall take the necessary measures to achieve the full realization of this right in accordance with their national law. Los Estados Partes reconocerán a todos los niños el derecho a beneficiarse de la seguridad social, incluso al seguro social, y adoptarán las medidas necesarias para lograr la plena realización de este derecho de conformidad con su legislación nacional.

2. 2. The benefits should, where appropriate, be granted, taking into account the resources and the circumstances of the child and persons having responsibility for the maintenance of the child, as well as any other consideration relevant to an application for benefits made by or on behalf of the child. Los beneficios que, si procede, se concederán, teniendo en cuenta los recursos y las circunstancias del niño y de las personas que sean responsables del mantenimiento del niño, así como cualquier otra consideración pertinente a una solicitud de prestaciones hecha por o en nombre de el niño.

Article 27 Artículo 27

1. 1. States Parties recognize the right of every child to a standard of living adequate for the child's physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development. Los Estados Partes reconocen el derecho de todo niño a un nivel de vida adecuado para el desarrollo físico, mental, espiritual, moral y social.

2. 2. The parent(s) or others responsible for the child have the primary responsibility to secure, within their abilities and financial capacities, the conditions of living necessary for the child's development. El padre (s) u otras personas encargadas del niño les incumbe la responsabilidad primordial de proporcionar, dentro de sus posibilidades y medios económicos, las condiciones de vida que sean necesarias para el desarrollo del niño.

3. 3. States Parties, in accordance with national conditions and within their means, shall take appropriate measures to assist parents and others responsible for the child to implement this right and shall in case of need provide material assistance and support programmes, particularly with regard to nutrition, clothing and housing. Estados Partes, de conformidad con las condiciones nacionales y con sus medios, adoptarán medidas apropiadas para ayudar a los padres y otras personas responsables por el niño a dar efectividad a este derecho y, en caso necesario, proporcionarán asistencia material y programas de apoyo, particularmente con respecto a la nutrición, el vestuario y la vivienda.

4. 4. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to secure the recovery of maintenance for the child from the parents or other persons having financial responsibility for the child, both within the State Party and from abroad. Los Estados Partes adoptarán todas las medidas apropiadas para asegurar el pago de la pensión alimenticia del niño de sus padres u otras personas que tengan la responsabilidad financiera por el niño, tanto en el Estado Parte y del extranjero. In particular, where the person having financial responsibility for the child lives in a State different from that of the child, States Parties shall promote the accession to international agreements or the conclusion of such agreements, as well as the making of other appropriate arrangements. En particular, cuando la persona que tenga la responsabilidad financiera por el niño vive en un Estado diferente de la del niño, los Estados Partes promoverán la adhesión a acuerdos internacionales o la celebración de tales acuerdos, así como la realización de otros arreglos.

Article 28 Artículo 28

1. 1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to education, and with a view to achieving this right progressively and on the basis of equal opportunity, they shall, in particular: Los Estados Partes reconocen el derecho del niño a la educación, y con miras a lograr progresivamente este derecho y sobre la base de la igualdad de oportunidades, deberán en particular:

(a) Make primary education compulsory and available free to all; (a) Implantar la enseñanza primaria obligatoria y gratuita para todos;

(b) Encourage the development of different forms of secondary education, including general and vocational education, make them available and accessible to every child, and take appropriate measures such as the introduction of free education and offering financial assistance in case of need; (b) Fomentar el desarrollo de las diferentes formas de enseñanza secundaria, incluida la enseñanza general y profesional, que sean disponibles y accesibles a todos los niños, y adoptar medidas apropiadas tales como la introducción de la enseñanza gratuita y la asistencia financiera en caso de necesidad;

(c) Make higher education accessible to all on the basis of capacity by every appropriate means; (c) Hacer la enseñanza superior accesible a todos, sobre la base de la capacidad, por cuantos medios sean apropiados;

(d) Make educational and vocational information and guidance available and accessible to all children; (d) Hacer de educación y de información y orientación profesionales y hacerse accesible a todos los niños;

(e) Take measures to encourage regular attendance at schools and the reduction of drop-out rates. (e) Adoptar medidas para fomentar la asistencia regular a las escuelas y la reducción de las tasas de deserción escolar.

2. 2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that school discipline is administered in a manner consistent with the child's human dignity and in conformity with the present Convention. Los Estados Partes adoptarán todas las medidas apropiadas para garantizar que la disciplina escolar se administre de modo compatible con la dignidad humana del niño y de conformidad con la presente Convención.

3. 3. States Parties shall promote and encourage international cooperation in matters relating to education, in particular with a view to contributing to the elimination of ignorance and illiteracy throughout the world and facilitating access to scientific and technical knowledge and modern teaching methods. Los Estados Partes fomentarán y alentarán la cooperación internacional en cuestiones de educación, en particular, con el fin de contribuir a eliminar la ignorancia y el analfabetismo en todo el mundo y facilitar el acceso a los conocimientos científicos y técnicos y los métodos modernos de enseñanza. In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing countries. A este respecto, se tendrán especialmente en cuenta las necesidades de los países en desarrollo.

Article 29 Artículo 29 General comment on its implementation Observación general sobre su aplicación

1. 1. States Parties agree that the education of the child shall be directed to: Los Estados Partes convienen en que la educación del niño deberá estar encaminada a:

(a) The development of the child's personality, talents and mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential; (a) El desarrollo de la personalidad del niño, las aptitudes y la capacidad mental y física hasta el máximo de sus posibilidades;

(b) The development of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and for the principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations; (b) El fomento del respeto de los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales, y de los principios consagrados en la Carta de las Naciones Unidas;

(c) The development of respect for the child's parents, his or her own cultural identity, language and values, for the national values of the country in which the child is living, the country from which he or she may originate, and for civilizations different from his or her own; (c) El fomento del respeto de los padres del niño, de su propia identidad cultural, su idioma y sus valores, de los valores nacionales del país en que vive, del país de que sea originario y de las civilizaciones diferente de la suya;

(d) The preparation of the child for responsible life in a free society, in the spirit of understanding, peace, tolerance, equality of sexes, and friendship among all peoples, ethnic, national and religious groups and persons of indigenous origin; (d) Preparar al niño para asumir una vida responsable en una sociedad libre, con espíritu de comprensión, paz, tolerancia, igualdad de los sexos y amistad entre todos los pueblos, grupos étnicos, nacionales y religiosos y personas de origen indígena;

(e) The development of respect for the natural environment. (e) El fomento del respeto del medio ambiente natural.

2. 2. No part of the present article or article 28 shall be construed so as to interfere with the liberty of individuals and bodies to establish and direct educational institutions, subject always to the observance of the principle set forth in paragraph 1 of the present article and to the requirements that the education given in such institutions shall conform to such minimum standards as may be laid down by the State. Ninguna parte de este artículo o el artículo 28 se interpretará como una restricción de la libertad de los particulares y entidades para establecer y dirigir instituciones de enseñanza, siempre con sujeción a la observancia del principio enunciado en el párrafo 1 del presente artículo ya la requisitos que la educación que se imparte en dichas instituciones se ajusten a esas normas mínimas que puedan ser establecidos por el Estado.

Article 30 Artículo 30

In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities or persons of indigenous origin exist, a child belonging to such a minority or who is indigenous shall not be denied the right, in community with other members of his or her group, to enjoy his or her own culture, to profess and practise his or her own religion, or to use his or her own language. En los Estados en que existan minorías étnicas, religiosas o lingüísticas o personas de origen indígena existen, un niño que pertenezca a tales minorías o que sea indígena no debe negársele el derecho, en comunidad con otros miembros de su grupo, a gozar de su o su propia vida cultural, a profesar y practicar su propia religión, oa emplear su propio idioma.

Article 31 Artículo 31

1. 1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age of the child and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts. Los Estados Partes reconocen el derecho del niño al descanso y al esparcimiento, a participar en juegos y actividades recreativas apropiadas a la edad del niño y de participar libremente en la vida cultural y artística.

2. 2. States Parties shall respect and promote the right of the child to participate fully in cultural and artistic life and shall encourage the provision of appropriate and equal opportunities for cultural, artistic, recreational and leisure activity. Los Estados Partes respetarán y promoverán el derecho del niño a participar plenamente en la vida cultural y artística y fomentar la prestación de servicios apropiados y la igualdad de oportunidades para actividades culturales, artísticas, recreativas y de ocio.

Article 32 Artículo 32

1. 1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education, or to be harmful to the child's health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development. Los Estados Partes reconocen el derecho del niño a estar protegido contra la explotación económica y contra el desempeño de cualquier trabajo que pueda ser peligroso o interferir en la educación del niño, o que sea nocivo para su salud o desarrollo físico, mental, espiritual, moral o el desarrollo social.

2. 2. States Parties shall take legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to ensure the implementation of the present article. Los Estados Partes adoptarán medidas legislativas, administrativas, sociales y educacionales para garantizar la aplicación del presente artículo. To this end, and having regard to the relevant provisions of other international instruments, States Parties shall in particular: (a) Provide for a minimum age or minimum ages for admission to employment; Con este fin, y teniendo en cuenta las disposiciones pertinentes de otros instrumentos internacionales, los Estados Partes, en particular: (a) Proporcionar una edad o edades mínimas de admisión al empleo;

(b) Provide for appropriate regulation of the hours and conditions of employment; (b) Dispondrán la reglamentación apropiada de los horarios y condiciones de empleo;

(c) Provide for appropriate penalties or other sanctions to ensure the effective enforcement of the present article. (c) Proporcionar a penalidades u otras sanciones apropiadas para asegurar la aplicación efectiva del presente artículo.

Article 33 Artículo 33

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures, including legislative, administrative, social and educational measures, to protect children from the illicit use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances as defined in the relevant international treaties, and to prevent the use of children in the illicit production and trafficking of such substances. Los Estados Partes adoptarán todas las medidas apropiadas, incluidas medidas legislativas, administrativas, sociales y educacionales, para proteger a los niños contra el uso ilícito de estupefacientes y sustancias sicotrópicas, tal como se definen en los tratados internacionales pertinentes, y para evitar la utilización de niños en la producción ilícita y el tráfico de esas sustancias.

Article 34 Artículo 34

States Parties undertake to protect the child from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. Los Estados Partes se comprometen a proteger al niño contra todas las formas de explotación sexual y abuso sexual. For these purposes, States Parties shall in particular take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent: A estos efectos, los Estados Partes tomarán, en particular todas las medidas nacionales, bilaterales y multilateral que sean necesarias para impedir:

(a) The inducement or coercion of a child to engage in any unlawful sexual activity; (a) La incitación o la coacción para que un niño se dedique a cualquier actividad sexual ilegal;

(b) The exploitative use of children in prostitution or other unlawful sexual practices; (b) La explotación del niño en la prostitución u otras prácticas sexuales ilegales;

(c) The exploitative use of children in pornographic performances and materials. (c) La explotación del niño en espectáculos o materiales pornográficos.

Article 35 Artículo 35

States Parties shall take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent the abduction of, the sale of or traffic in children for any purpose or in any form. Los Estados Partes adoptarán todas las medidas nacionales, bilaterales y multilaterales sobre medidas para impedir el secuestro, la venta o la trata de niños para cualquier fin o en cualquier forma.

Article 36 Artículo 36

States Parties shall protect the child against all other forms of exploitation prejudicial to any aspects of the child's welfare. Los Estados Partes protegerán al niño contra todas las demás formas de explotación que sean perjudiciales para cualquier aspecto de su bienestar.

Article 37 Artículo 37

States Parties shall ensure that: Los Estados Partes velarán por que:

(a) No child shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without possibility of release shall be imposed for offences committed by persons below eighteen years of age;

(b) No child shall be deprived of his or her liberty unlawfully or arbitrarily. The arrest, detention or imprisonment of a child shall be in conformity with the law and shall be used only as a measure of last resort and for the shortest appropriate period of time;

(c) Every child deprived of liberty shall be treated with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of the human person, and in a manner which takes into account the needs of persons of his or her age. In particular, every child deprived of liberty shall be separated from adults unless it is considered in the child's best interest not to do so and shall have the right to maintain contact with his or her family through correspondence and visits, save in exceptional circumstances;

(d) Every child deprived of his or her liberty shall have the right to prompt access to legal and other appropriate assistance, as well as the right to challenge the legality of the deprivation of his or her liberty before a court or other competent, independent and impartial authority, and to a prompt decision on any such action.

Article 38

1. 1. States Parties undertake to respect and to ensure respect for rules of international humanitarian law applicable to them in armed conflicts which are relevant to the child.

2. 2. States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure that persons who have not attained the age of fifteen years do not take a direct part in hostilities.

3. 3. States Parties shall refrain from recruiting any person who has not attained the age of fifteen years into their armed forces. In recruiting among those persons who have attained the age of fifteen years but who have not attained the age of eighteen years, States Parties shall endeavour to give priority to those who are oldest.

4. 4. In accordance with their obligations under international humanitarian law to protect the civilian population in armed conflicts, States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure protection and care of children who are affected by an armed conflict.

Article 39

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to promote physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration of a child victim of: any form of neglect, exploitation, or abuse; torture or any other form of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment; or armed conflicts. Such recovery and reintegration shall take place in an environment which fosters the health, self-respect and dignity of the child.

Article 40

1. 1. States Parties recognize the right of every child alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law to be treated in a manner consistent with the promotion of the child's sense of dignity and worth, which reinforces the child's respect for the human rights and fundamental freedoms of others and which takes into account the child's age and the desirability of promoting the child's reintegration and the child's assuming a constructive role in society.

2. 2. To this end, and having regard to the relevant provisions of international instruments, States Parties shall, in particular, ensure that:

(a) No child shall be alleged as, be accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law by reason of acts or omissions that were not prohibited by national or international law at the time they were committed;

(b) Every child alleged as or accused of having infringed the penal law has at least the following guarantees:

(i) To be presumed innocent until proven guilty according to law;

(ii) To be informed promptly and directly of the charges against him or her, and, if appropriate, through his or her parents or legal guardians, and to have legal or other appropriate assistance in the preparation and presentation of his or her defence;

(iii) To have the matter determined without delay by a competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body in a fair hearing according to law, in the presence of legal or other appropriate assistance and, unless it is considered not to be in the best interest of the child, in particular, taking into account his or her age or situation, his or her parents or legal guardians;

(iv) Not to be compelled to give testimony or to confess guilt; to examine or have examined adverse witnesses and to obtain the participation and examination of witnesses on his or her behalf under conditions of equality;

(v) If considered to have infringed the penal law, to have this decision and any measures imposed in consequence thereof reviewed by a higher competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body according to law;

(vi) To have the free assistance of an interpreter if the child cannot understand or speak the language used;

(vii) To have his or her privacy fully respected at all stages of the proceedings. 3. 3. States Parties shall seek to promote the establishment of laws, procedures, authorities and institutions specifically applicable to children alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law, and, in particular:

(a) The establishment of a minimum age below which children shall be presumed not to have the capacity to infringe the penal law;

(b) Whenever appropriate and desirable, measures for dealing with such children without resorting to judicial proceedings, providing that human rights and legal safeguards are fully respected.

4. 4. A variety of dispositions, such as care, guidance and supervision orders; counselling; probation; foster care; education and vocational training programmes and other alternatives to institutional care shall be available to ensure that children are dealt with in a manner appropriate to their well-being and proportionate both to their circumstances and the offence.

Article 41

Nothing in the present Convention shall affect any provisions which are more conducive to the realization of the rights of the child and which may be contained in:

(a) The law of a State party; or

(b) International law in force for that State.

PART II

Article 42

States Parties undertake to make the principles and provisions of the Convention widely known, by appropriate and active means, to adults and children alike.

Article 43

1. 1. For the purpose of examining the progress made by States Parties in achieving the realization of the obligations undertaken in the present Convention, there shall be established a Committee on the Rights of the Child , which shall carry out the functions hereinafter provided.

2. 2. The Committee shall consist of ten experts of high moral standing and recognized competence in the field covered by this Convention. The members of the Committee shall be elected by States Parties from among their nationals and shall serve in their personal capacity, consideration being given to equitable geographical distribution, as well as to the principal legal systems. ( amendment)

3. 3. The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list of persons nominated by States Parties. Each State Party may nominate one person from among its own nationals.

4. 4. The initial election to the Committee shall be held no later than six months after the date of the entry into force of the present Convention and thereafter every second year. At least four months before the date of each election, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall address a letter to States Parties inviting them to submit their nominations within two months. The Secretary-General shall subsequently prepare a list in alphabetical order of all persons thus nominated, indicating States Parties which have nominated them, and shall submit it to the States Parties to the present Convention.

5. 5. The elections shall be held at meetings of States Parties convened by the Secretary-General at United Nations Headquarters. At those meetings, for which two thirds of States Parties shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee shall be those who obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute majority of the votes of the representatives of States Parties present and voting.

6. 6. The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of four years. They shall be eligible for re-election if renominated. The term of five of the members elected at the first election shall expire at the end of two years; immediately after the first election, the names of these five members shall be chosen by lot by the Chairman of the meeting.

7. 7. If a member of the Committee dies or resigns or declares that for any other cause he or she can no longer perform the duties of the Committee, the State Party which nominated the member shall appoint another expert from among its nationals to serve for the remainder of the term, subject to the approval of the Committee.

8. 8. The Committee shall establish its own rules of procedure.

9. 9. The Committee shall elect its officers for a period of two years.

10. 10. The meetings of the Committee shall normally be held at United Nations Headquarters or at any other convenient place as determined by the Committee. The Committee shall normally meet annually. The duration of the meetings of the Committee shall be determined, and reviewed, if necessary, by a meeting of the States Parties to the present Convention, subject to the approval of the General Assembly.

11. 11. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the necessary staff and facilities for the effective performance of the functions of the Committee under the present Convention.

12. 12. With the approval of the General Assembly, the members of the Committee established under the present Convention shall receive emoluments from United Nations resources on such terms and conditions as the Assembly may decide.

Article 44

1. 1. States Parties undertake to submit to the Committee, through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, reports on the measures they have adopted which give effect to the rights recognized herein and on the progress made on the enjoyment of those rights:

(a) Within two years of the entry into force of the Convention for the State Party concerned;

(b) Thereafter every five years.

2. 2. Reports made under the present article shall indicate factors and difficulties, if any, affecting the degree of fulfilment of the obligations under the present Convention. Reports shall also contain sufficient information to provide the Committee with a comprehensive understanding of the implementation of the Convention in the country concerned.

3. 3. A State Party which has submitted a comprehensive initial report to the Committee need not, in its subsequent reports submitted in accordance with paragraph 1 (b) of the present article, repeat basic information previously provided.

4. 4. The Committee may request from States Parties further information relevant to the implementation of the Convention.

5. 5. The Committee shall submit to the General Assembly, through the Economic and Social Council, every two years, reports on its activities.

6. 6. States Parties shall make their reports widely available to the public in their own countries.

Article 45

In order to foster the effective implementation of the Convention and to encourage international co-operation in the field covered by the Convention:

(a) The specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund, and other United Nations organs shall be entitled to be represented at the consideration of the implementation of such provisions of the present Convention as fall within the scope of their mandate. The Committee may invite the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund and other competent bodies as it may consider appropriate to provide expert advice on the implementation of the Convention in areas falling within the scope of their respective mandates. The Committee may invite the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund, and other United Nations organs to submit reports on the implementation of the Convention in areas falling within the scope of their activities;

(b) The Committee shall transmit, as it may consider appropriate, to the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund and other competent bodies, any reports from States Parties that contain a request, or indicate a need, for technical advice or assistance, along with the Committee's observations and suggestions, if any, on these requests or indications;

(c) The Committee may recommend to the General Assembly to request the Secretary-General to undertake on its behalf studies on specific issues relating to the rights of the child;

(d) The Committee may make suggestions and general recommendations based on information received pursuant to articles 44 and 45 of the present Convention. Such suggestions and general recommendations shall be transmitted to any State Party concerned and reported to the General Assembly, together with comments, if any, from States Parties.

PART III

Article 46

The present Convention shall be open for signature by all States.

Article 47

The present Convention is subject to ratification. Instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 48

The present Convention shall remain open for accession by any State. The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 49

1. 1. The present Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the date of deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession.

2. 2. For each State ratifying or acceding to the Convention after the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the deposit by such State of its instrument of ratification or accession.

Article 50

1. 1. Any State Party may propose an amendment and file it with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The Secretary-General shall thereupon communicate the proposed amendment to States Parties, with a request that they indicate whether they favour a conference of States Parties for the purpose of considering and voting upon the proposals. In the event that, within four months from the date of such communication, at least one third of the States Parties favour such a conference, the Secretary-General shall convene the conference under the auspices of the United Nations. Any amendment adopted by a majority of States Parties present and voting at the conference shall be submitted to the General Assembly for approval.

2. 2. An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 1 of the present article shall enter into force when it has been approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations and accepted by a two-thirds majority of States Parties.

3. 3. When an amendment enters into force, it shall be binding on those States Parties which have accepted it, other States Parties still being bound by the provisions of the present Convention and any earlier amendments which they have accepted.

Article 51 Artículo 51

1. 1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall receive and circulate to all States the text of reservations made by States at the time of ratification or accession.

2. 2. A reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the present Convention shall not be permitted.

3. 3. Reservations may be withdrawn at any time by notification to that effect addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall then inform all States. Such notification shall take effect on the date on which it is received by the Secretary-General

Article 52

A State Party may denounce the present Convention by written notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Denunciation becomes effective one year after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary-General.

Article 53

The Secretary-General of the United Nations is designated as the depositary of the present Convention.

Article 54

The original of the present Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

IN WITNESS THEREOF the undersigned plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized thereto by their respective governments, have signed the present Convention.

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